Users and groups¶
NethServer supports authentication and authorization on local and remote account providers.
Supported providers are:
- LDAP: OpenLDAP running on NethServer
- Active Directory: Samba Active Directory running locally (or remotely) or on an existing Windows AD machine
After the first configuration wizard, the administrator can configure the authentication source using the User and groups page. If no extra package is installed, the admin user must select a remote account provider. Users and groups from remote sources are in read-only mode and can not be modified.
After installing a local backend (Samba Active Directory or OpenLDAP), the user will be able to create/modify/delete local users and groups.
Please, choose wisely your account provider because the choice is not reversible. Also, the system will forbid any change to the FQDN after the account provider has been configured.
From the Software Center install the package named Account provider: OpenLDAP. At the end of the installation, the package is automatically configured and the administrator will be able to manage users and groups from the User and groups page.
Samba Active Directory¶
When installing Samba Active Directory, the system needs an additional IP address which will be the address of Active Directory controller inside the LAN. The additional IP address must satisfy three conditions:
- the IP address must be in the same subnet range of a green network
- the green network must be bound to a bridged interface
- the IP address must not be used by any other machine
From the Software Center install the package named Account provider: Samba Active Directory. At the end of the installation, access the User and groups page to configure Samba for the first time. Then insert the additional IP address and press the submit button: if needed, the system will automatically create a bridge on the green network.
Users and groups can be managed from the User and groups page.
After installing Samba Active Directory, the Users and groups page has one default entry: administrator. This account is granted special privileges on some specific services, such as joining a workstation in Samba Active Directory domain.
Default password for user administrator is: Nethesis,1234
Remember to change the administrator password at first login.
Installing on a virtual machine¶
Samba Active Directory runs inside a container which uses a virtual network interface bridged to the network interface of the system. The virtual network interface must be visible inside the physical network, but often virtualization solutions block ARP traffic. As a result, the Samba Active Directory container isn’t visible from hosts inside the LAN.
When installing on virtual environment, make sure the virtualization solution allows traffic in promiscuous mode.
To setup the promiscuous mode policy, select “Allow all” from the drop down list located in the network settings section.
Enter the networking configuration section of the virtualization node and set the virtual switch in promiscuous mode.
Make sure the virtual machine is bridged to a real bridge (like br0) and the bridge is put in promiscuous mode.
It’s possible to force a bridge (br0) in promiscuous mode using this command:
ifconfig br0 promisc
Active Directory member¶
In this scenario NethServer becomes a trusted server of an existing Active Directory (AD) domain. When accessing a resource from a domain workstation, user credentials are checked against a domain controller, and the access to the resource is granted.
Joining an Active Directory domain has some pre-requisites:
Inpage, set the domain controller as DNS. If a second DC exists, it can be set as secondary DNS.
Inpage, set the DC as NTP time source; the Kerberos protocol requires the difference between systems clocks is less than 5 minutes.
When you join an Active Directory domain, the system assumes the default NetBIOS domain name is the leftmost label in the DNS domain suffix up to the first 15 characters.
- FQDN: test.local.nethserver.org
- Domain: local.nethserver.org
- Default NetBIOS domain: LOCAL
If the default NetBIOS domain is not good for you environment, you can change it from command line:
config set smb service Workgroup <your_netbios_domain>
After pre-requisites are set, proceed with the join from User and groups page:
- Fill DNS server IP address field which usually is the IP address of the AD controller.
- Click the submit button. You will be prompted for an user name and
password: provide AD
administratoror any other account credentials with permissions to join the machine to the domain.
A system user is required to access many services provided by NethServer (email, shared folders, etc..).
Each user is characterized by a pair of credentials (user and password). A newly created user account remains locked until it has set a password. A blocked user can not use the services of servers that require authentication.
When creating a user, following fields are mandatory:
- Full name (name and surname)
Just after creation, the user is disabled. To enable the user, set a password using the Change password button. When a user is enabled, the user can access to the Server Manager and change his/her own password: Change user password.
A user can be added to one or more group from the Users page or from the Groups one.
Sometimes you need to block user’s access to service without deleting the account. This behavior can be achieved using the Lock and Unlock buttons.
When a user is deleted, all user data will be also deleted.
Access to services¶
A user can be enabled to access specific (or all) services. The access must be done using the full user name with the domain: username@<domain>.
- Domain: nethserver.org
- Username: goofy
The full user name for login is: email@example.com.
A group of user can be used to assign special permissions to some users or to create email distribution lists.
As for the users, a group can be enabled to some (or all) services.
For delegating permissions to the Server Manager, use the groups
Two special groups can be created, the users who belong in one of these groups are granted access to the panels of the Server Manager
- administrators: Users of this group have the same permissions as the
- managers: Users of this group are granted access to the Management section.
The system provides the ability to set constraints on password complexity and expiration.
Password policies can be changed from web interface.
The password complexity is a set of minimum conditions that password must match to be accepted by the system: You can choose between two different management policies about password complexity:
- none: there is no specific control over the password entered, but minimum length is 7 characters
The strong policy requires that the password must comply with the following rules:
- Minimum length of 7 characters
- Contain at least 1 number
- Contain at least 1 uppercase character
- Contain at least 1 lowercase character
- Contain at least 1 special character
- At least 5 different characters
- Must be not present in the dictionaries of common words
- Must be different from the username
- Can not have repetitions of patterns formed by 3 or more characters (for example the password As1.$ AS1. $ is invalid)
- If Samba Active Directory is installed, also the system will enable password history
The default policy is strong.
Changing the default policies is highly discouraged. The use of weak passwords often lead to compromised servers by external attackers.
The password expiration is enabled by default to 6 months from the time when the password is set. The system will send an e-mail to inform the users when their password is about to expire.
The system will refer to the date of the last password change, whichever is the earlier more than 6 months, the server will send an email to indicate that password has expired. In this case you need to change the user password. For example, if the last password change was made in January and the activation of the deadline in October, the system will assume the password changed in January is expired, and notify the user.
Effects of expired password¶
After password expiration, the user will be able to read and send mails but can no longer access the shared folders and printers (Samba) or other computer if the machine is part of the domain.
If the system is configured as a domain controller, users can change their password using the Windows tools.
In the latter case you can not set passwords shorter than 6 characters regardless of the server policies. Windows performs preliminary checks and sends the password to the server where they are then evaluated with enabled policies.
Default language for notifications is English. If you wish to change it, use the following command:
config setprop sysconfig DefaultLanguage <lang>
Example for Italian:
config setprop sysconfig DefaultLanguage it_IT.utf8